Ermira KALAJ

University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Shkoder, Albania

ORCID: 0000-0003-4692-6055


University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Shkoder, Albania


This paper focuses on the analyses of digitalization of enterprises and its performance impact in Albania. Using World Bank Enterprise Survey of 2019 merged with the ES follow-up on Covid-19 for Albania we investigate on the overall performance of enterprises during Covid-19 pandemic and the role of digitalization. The objective of the survey is to better understand the firm’s experience in the private sector. Collected data are based on firms’ experiences and perception of the environment in which they operate.

The paper uses these specific questions to study digitalization prior to and during Covid-19 pandemic. ES questionnaires focus on the following questions: (1) Does the establishment have its own website? (2) Started or increased business activity online? (3) Started or increased remote work arrangement for its workforce? The dependent variable is performance of the enterprises measured in terms of sales growth, employment growth, closure, and production adjustment. While the vector of independent variables is composed by enterprise characteristics such as firm size, ownership structure, legal status, region, etc. Moreover, dummy variables are used to capture access to formal banking service, and gender ownership.

Keywords: Firm Performance, Entrepreneurship, Digitalization, General Regional Economics

JEL classification: L25, L26, L86, R15

pp. 97-108

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Researcher, Department of Regional Development and Planning, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Serafeim POLYZOS

Professor, Department of Regional Development and Planning, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Dimitrios TSIOTAS

Assistant Professor, Department of Regional and Economic Development, School of Applied Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Amfissa, Greece


Renewable energy sources (RES) are characterized as clean forms of energy and come directly or indirectly from the impact of solar energy on the environment. The overall process of planning, designing, constructing, and operating renewable energy projects involves complex uncertainties and risks, which are difficult to analyze and evaluate effectively through traditional investment appraisal methods. Each RES project presents different types of uncertainties, which are categorized as external and internal. The Real Options (RO) theory for evaluating investments in RES projects can provide additional investment options at different stages of the projects, enhancing flexibility and improving the decision-making ability of a company’s management.

This paper summarizes the specifics governing RES projects, the main characteristics of the RO methodology, and an overall framework for its application to RES projects. This framework is used to evaluate an investment in a 500kWp photovoltaic (PV) park in Greece. The uncertainties selected for the analysis of the RO methodology are the electricity sales price and the production from the specific PV project. In addition, the options/rights of the investor that are considered, are to continue or abandon the investment in each phase of the project implementation. The results, based on the current data and have included the possible fluctuation in the values of the two aforementioned uncertainties, show that investing in a PV project of similar size and technology in Greece is advantageous and worth undertaking. The intention to finance a large proportion of the investment by the banks plays an important role in this.

Keywords: project appraisal methods, real options theory, renewable energy projects, risk and uncertainty analysis, construction project management

JEL classification: R3, R5, R38,

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Christos Ap. LADIAS

Professor, Regional Science Inquiry Journal, Greece

Filipos RUXHO

Professor Ass. Dr., Department of Business and Management, Universum College, Kosovo

Corresponding Author

Fernando José Calado e Silva Nunes TEIXEIRA

Professor Ass. Dr., Faculty of Economy, Institute Polytechnic de Beja, Portugal

Susana Soares Pinheiro Vieira PESCADA

Professor Ass. Dr., Faculty of Economy, University of Algarve, Portugal


This paper examines the importance of regional economic indicators in the economic development of Kosovo. Regional economic indicators provide valuable insights into the economic performance and potential of different regions within a country. By analyzing these indicators, policymakers can design targeted strategies that promote economic growth and reduce regional disparities. In Kosovo, regional economic disparities have been a persistent challenge, with some regions experiencing significantly higher levels of poverty and unemployment. The paper argues that the adoption of regional economic indicators can help identify and address these disparities. Several indicators are examined, including income per capita, unemployment indicators, and the poverty rate to provide a comprehensive overview of regional economic development in Kosovo. Analysis of secondary data through the method of descriptive statistics reveals significant disparities in different regions and underlines the need for targeted policies and interventions. In conclusion, it underlined the importance of developing a strong and reliable system for the collection and reporting of regional economic indicators, which can inform evidence-based policy-making and support a more equitable and sustainable regional economic development in Kosovo.

Keywords: dicator, regional development, income per capita, decent work

JEL classification: J30, J80, O10, M10, R10, R58

pp. 73-83

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