Researcher of Policy Economics, University of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy)
Researcher of Applied Economics, University of Catania (IT), Visiting Research Fellowship, University of Winchester (UK)
The paper aims to investigate the relationship between gender equality and regional resilience. Literature, primarily regional literature, has shown limited interest in gender. Nevertheless, females and males are employed in different industries, so when a shock hits, it can have a different employment impact in terms of gender and, consequently, in terms of resilience. Regions are specialized in some industries. Regional specialization results from historical, cultural, natural endowments, and social elements. Also, the uneven distribution between females and males within industries involves social, cultural, and economic components. As a result, regional specialization determines an employment distribution that can be unequal regarding gender. This employment distribution is captured by the Dissimilarity Index, which measures the sum of the absolute difference in females’ and males’ distribution over occupations. Therefore, the dissimilarity index emerges as a consequence of regional specialization. This dissimilarity, in turn, could have an impact on resilience. Our results put several significant results forwards. First, there is a relationship between gender segregation and regional specialization. The higher the regional specialization in sectors where the females’ share is low, the higher the dissimilarity. Second, there was a positive relationship between resilience and gender equality from 2008 to 2013. The more gender equality regions are also the more resilient ones. Taking a sectoral occupation is not easy, including social values, cultural components, welfare, education, and soft skill. Policies should also address their efforts to enhance the welfare and social dimensions and break gender stereotypes.
Keywords: Gender, Regional specialization, Dissimilarity, Resilience, Italy
JEL classification: R10, R11, R19, O18