Researcher, Department of Regional Development and Planning, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Serafeim POLYZOS

Professor, Department of Regional Development and Planning, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Dimitrios TSIOTAS

Assistant Professor, Department of Regional and Economic Development, School of Applied Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Amfissa, Greece


Renewable energy sources (RES) are characterized as clean forms of energy and come directly or indirectly from the impact of solar energy on the environment. The overall process of planning, designing, constructing, and operating renewable energy projects involves complex uncertainties and risks, which are difficult to analyze and evaluate effectively through traditional investment appraisal methods. Each RES project presents different types of uncertainties, which are categorized as external and internal. The Real Options (RO) theory for evaluating investments in RES projects can provide additional investment options at different stages of the projects, enhancing flexibility and improving the decision-making ability of a company’s management.

This paper summarizes the specifics governing RES projects, the main characteristics of the RO methodology, and an overall framework for its application to RES projects. This framework is used to evaluate an investment in a 500kWp photovoltaic (PV) park in Greece. The uncertainties selected for the analysis of the RO methodology are the electricity sales price and the production from the specific PV project. In addition, the options/rights of the investor that are considered, are to continue or abandon the investment in each phase of the project implementation. The results, based on the current data and have included the possible fluctuation in the values of the two aforementioned uncertainties, show that investing in a PV project of similar size and technology in Greece is advantageous and worth undertaking. The intention to finance a large proportion of the investment by the banks plays an important role in this.

Keywords: project appraisal methods, real options theory, renewable energy projects, risk and uncertainty analysis, construction project management

JEL classification: R3, R5, R38,

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Christos Ap. LADIAS

Professor, Regional Science Inquiry Journal, Greece

Filipos RUXHO

Professor Ass. Dr., Department of Business and Management, Universum College, Kosovo

Corresponding Author

Fernando José Calado e Silva Nunes TEIXEIRA

Professor Ass. Dr., Faculty of Economy, Institute Polytechnic de Beja, Portugal

Susana Soares Pinheiro Vieira PESCADA

Professor Ass. Dr., Faculty of Economy, University of Algarve, Portugal


This paper examines the importance of regional economic indicators in the economic development of Kosovo. Regional economic indicators provide valuable insights into the economic performance and potential of different regions within a country. By analyzing these indicators, policymakers can design targeted strategies that promote economic growth and reduce regional disparities. In Kosovo, regional economic disparities have been a persistent challenge, with some regions experiencing significantly higher levels of poverty and unemployment. The paper argues that the adoption of regional economic indicators can help identify and address these disparities. Several indicators are examined, including income per capita, unemployment indicators, and the poverty rate to provide a comprehensive overview of regional economic development in Kosovo. Analysis of secondary data through the method of descriptive statistics reveals significant disparities in different regions and underlines the need for targeted policies and interventions. In conclusion, it underlined the importance of developing a strong and reliable system for the collection and reporting of regional economic indicators, which can inform evidence-based policy-making and support a more equitable and sustainable regional economic development in Kosovo.

Keywords: dicator, regional development, income per capita, decent work

JEL classification: J30, J80, O10, M10, R10, R58

pp. 73-83

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Department of Economics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India


Department of Economics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India



The various endogenous growth theories as well as empirical studies have proved that human capital works as an important factor for economy’s growth. The role of income on human capital formation cannot be overlooked so far as the essences of the endogenous growth theories are concerned. Considering this interconnection among the human capital and income of the economy, the present study provides quantitative evidence to show the associations amongst human capital formation as quantified by the governments’ health and education expenditures and income of the economy measured by states’ gross domestic products for the panel of states and union territories of India during the period from 1998-99 to 2018-19. The technique of panel cointegration is used to show the long run relationships among human capital investment and income of the economy, and then the Wald test is used to examine the direction of short-run causality. The empirical results demonstrate that human capital and state incomes have a long-term relationship. The Wald test reveals a short-run linkage between human capital and income of the state economies, with the causality running from human capital investment to output of the economy. i.e., human capital has an immediate influence on the progress of the economy. It is consequently suggested that the governments of the states and union territories make additional investments in sectors such as education and health in order to secure long-term economic prosperity.

Keywords: Human capital, education, health, growth, panel cointegration, Indian states

JEL classification: I1, I2, O3, C32, C33

pp. 57-71

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