Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of the Department of Higher Mathematics, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation


Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Higher Mathematics, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation


Background. The methodology and economic mechanisms for calculating the cost of a long-term insurance policy, which could optimize management of insurance companies in the Russian Federation, have not been developed. The research into this sphere is relevant under conditions when the functions of insurance supervisors are transferred to the Central Bank of Russia.

Objectives. The priority of this economic study is to establish a scientific rationale for a transfer to the actuarial cost method of an insurance contract, as this method assures a balanced solution for long-term socio-economic problems and stability of the insurance portfolio.

Results. The paper presents the theoretical provisions, methodological approaches and practical recommendations on economic regulation and management of joint business activity involving several participants (partners) in case of premature termination by one of them. This study has investigated the methodological issues of long-term insurance in the Russian Federation; it has developed the theoretical approaches to risk evaluation of premature termination of a joint project because of a participant’s leaving; it has provided the scientific substantiation of and developed a conceptual economic mathematical model for calculating risks of one participant’s early leaving a joint project due to external circumstances; the scientific and practical recommendations for calculation of a rate net premium have been provided using case study.

Methods. To attain the objectives set out we used probability-theoretical models and actuarial mathematical methods for calculating insured components such as computational analysis, balance and statutory methods, and others.

Conclusion. The developed economic mathematical model can be applied for calculating the cost of an insurance contract, both in case of a single insurance product and a combination of different insurance products, that could help improve an insurance company’s liability for consequences of its rate policy. The proposed methods and tools allow taking into account potential risks at all the stages of solution development by an insurance company and avoiding adverse economic consequences in its business activities.

Keywords: insurance rates, net premium, distribution density, distribution function, economic mathematical model of risk insurance

JEL classification: C02
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Cherepovets State University, Cherepovets, RF


Moscow University for the Humanities, Moscow, RF


Introduction: The relevance of the problem is determined by the existing necessity to establish factors, mechanisms and conditions that are important for instilling the principles of non-aggressive behavior in students who propose to work in the sphere of psychological and educational support. The aim is to investigate the effect of person-oriented irritability, social and educational stereotypes on adopting either a controlling or manipulative position, or a non-aggressive position by students.

Materials and methods: In the present research, the following methods were adopted: theoretical (analysis, specification, generalization); empirical: unique techniques were developed for the purpose of studying intercommunication patterns between students, for determining levels of person-oriented irritability and the level of students’ rigidity; methods of statistical analysis of data: correlation analysis was performed, in which both linear and point-biserial (Pearson) correlation coefficient was employed. 133 students of both genders, average age 20, took part in the experiment, all of them proposing to work in the sphere of psychological and educational support (future teachers, psychologists, social care teachers) at Moscow University for the Humanities (60 persons) and Cherepovets State University (73 persons).

Results: The research helped to establish the following: a greater number of persons causing students’ irritation is associated with stronger factors for adopting controlling and manipulative positions. Vice versa, the low level of irritation caused by people is connected with more favorable conditions for adopting a non-aggressive position. We have also found out that the greatest rigidity of social and educational stereotypes is displayed by the students with apparent passive attitudes.

Discussion of results: we have characterized three groups of people that may cause a higher level of irritability, leading to adopting controlling and manipulative behavior patterns, the absence of which results in adopting a non-aggressive position. They include unsociable, reserved, slow or hyper-initiative persons. The most liable to social and educational rigidity are students with predominant passive position. Their attitude is characterized by prevalence of such stereotypes as denial of creative freedom for a university teacher, habit of obeying seniors’ orders, admitting necessity of strictness in a teacher, distrust of university’s character building potential (‘this work should be delegated to the family’).

Conclusion: we come to the conclusion that for the purpose of developing skills of non-aggressive communication, it is not enough for the future counselors of psychological and educational support just to be aware of ideas of non-aggression as a universal human value. It is also necessary to develop techniques that will teach students not to get irritated, to recognize and overcome their social and educational stereotypes.

The acquired results may be employed in practical training for creating a humanistic focus in personality development, for developing ability to build up relations avoiding overt and masked forms of pressure.

Keywords: non-aggressive communication, controlling behavior pattern, manipulative behavior pattern, non-aggressive behavior pattern, person-oriented irritability, social and educational stereotypes, students in the field of psychological and educational support.

JEL classification:

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Assistant Professor of Economics, Kharazmi University (Corresponding Author)


Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Payame Noor University, Iran


The relationship between health care and international tourism is one of the important issues in tourism literature. The main objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between health care and international tourism in the long-run and short-run by using a fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and Toda-Yamamoto approach over the time period of 1971-2016. The empirical results of this study indicate that there is a long-run relationship between health care and tourism. Health care has a positive and significant effect on the tourists’ arrivals as a proxy for international tourism demand. Moreover in the short-run, the results suggest that there is unilateral causality from health care to international tourism. Hence, the main implication policy of the study is that policy makers should adopt policies to improving health care and attract more international tourists.

Keywords: Health Care, International Tourism, FMOLS, Toda and Yamamoto Approach

JEL classification: C22, I10
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